Dr. Margaret Whalen

student on campus MARGARET M. WHALEN, Ph. D.

Professor

Department of Chemistry

Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209-1561

Telephone: (615) 963-5247 (office)

Fax: (615) 963-5326; email: mwhalen@tnstate.edu

Education:

B.S. in Chemistry. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD

Ph. D. in Biochemistry. University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM

Post-doctoral Fellow. Neurobiology Group, Life Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

Professional Experience:

Professor, Department of Chemistry, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Murray State University, Murray, KY

Research Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology,

University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM

Staff Member, Neurobiology section, Physiology Group (LS-1), Life Sciences Division, Los

Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

Honors:

2011. Appointed to the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Applied Toxicology

2010. Research Mentorship Award. 32nd University Wide Research Symposium, Tennessee State University, March 15-19, 2010.

2006. Blue and White All-Star Award for Faculty in the Sciences

2006. Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers

2004. Who's Who Among America's Teachers

2002. Research selected for a press release, American Chemical Society, National Meeting, April 8, 2002, Orlando, FL.

1999. Research selected for a press release, American Chemical Society, National Meeting, March 1999, Anaheim, CA.

Memberships:

American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

American Chemical Society

Sigma Xi

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Tennessee Academy of Science

Research Collaborations:

Robert Luebke, Ph. D., Immunotoxicology Branch, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

Keith Pannell, Ph. D. Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX

Publications in refereed journals:

Hurd, T., Whalen, M.M. 2011. Tetrabromobisphenol A decreases cell-surface protein expression in human natural killer cells. Journal of Immunooxicology, In Press

Taylor, T.R., Whalen, M.M. 2011. Ziram Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases and Decreases Cytolytic Protein Levels in Human Natural Killer Cells. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, In Press

Dudimah. F.D., Abraha, A., Wang, X., Whalen, M.M. 2010. Activation of p44/42 in human natural killer cells decreases cell-surface protein expression: Relationship to tributyltin-induced alterations of protein expression. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 20:544-555 PMCID: PMC2962685

Abraha, A., Rana, K., Whalen, M.M. 2010. Role of protein kinase C in the TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells. Arch. Environ. Cont. Toxicol. 59:661-669 PMCID: PMC2909453

Person, RJ, Whalen, MM. 2010. Effects of butyltin exposures on MAP kinase dependent transcription regulators in human natural killer cells. Toxicol. Mech. and Meth. 20:227-233 PMCID: PMC2874114

Odman-Ghazi, SO, Abraha, A, Isom, ET, Whalen, MM. 2010. Dibutyltin activates MAP kinases in human natural killer cells, in vitro. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 26:469-479. PMCID: PMC2892640

Udoji, F, Martin, T, Etherton, R, Whalen, MM. 2010. Immunosuppressive effects of triclosan, nonylphenol, and DDT on human natural killer cells, in vitro. J. Immunotoxicology. 7:205-212 PMCID: PMC2890036

Hinkson, NC, Whalen, MM. 2010. Hexabromocyclododecane Decreases Tumor-cell-binding Capacity and Cell-Surface Protein Expression of Human Natural Killer Cells. J. Appl. Toxicol. 30:302-309 PMCID: PMC2876233

Dudimah, FD, Griffey, D, Wang, X, Whalen, MM. 2010 Activation of p44/42 MAPK plays a role in the TBT-induced loss of human natural killer (NK) cell function. Cell Biology and Toxicology 26:435-444 PMCID: PMC2891216

Kibakaya, EC, Stephen, K, Whalen, MM. 2009. Tetrabromobisphenol A has immunosuppressive effects on human natural killer cells. J. Immunotoxicology 6: 285-292 PMCID: PMC2782892

Hinkson, NC, Whalen, MM. 2009. Hexabromocyclododecane decreases the lytic function and ATP levels of human natural killer cells. J. Appl. Toxicol. 29:656-661 PMCID: PMC2788026

Lane, R, Ghazi, SO, Whalen, MM. 2009. Increases in cytosolic calcium ion levels in human natural killer cells in response to butyltin exposure. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57: 816-825 PMCID: PMC2765521

Abraha, A. Whalen, MM. (2009) The role of p44/42 activation in tributyltin-induced inhibition of human natural killer cells: effects of MEK inhibitors. J. Appl. Toxicol. 29:165-173 PMCID:PMC2642538

Powell, JJ, Davis, MV, Whalen, MM. (2009) Glutathione diminishes tributyltin- and dibutyltin-induced loss of lytic function in human natural killer cells. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 32: 9-16 PMCID:PMC2704261

Taylor, TR, Whalen, MM. (2009) Effects of Ziram on tumor-cell-binding capacity, cell-surface marker expression and ATP levels of human natural killer cells. Cell Biology and Toxicology 25: 447-455 PMCID: PMC2732751

Nnodu, U, Whalen, MM. (2008) Pentachlorophenol decreases ATP levels in human natural killer cells. J. Appl. Toxicol. 28:1016-1020 PMCID:PMC2583398

Whalen, MM, DeWitt, JC, Luebke, RW. (2008) Serum supplementation modulates the effects of dibutyltin on human natural killer cell function. Toxicological Science 104: 312-319. PMCID: PMC2245884

Odman-Ghazi, SO, Person, RJ, Whalen, MM. (2008) Effects of tributyltin on protein tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C gamma in human natural killer cells. Toxicol. Mech. Meth., 18:25-33.

Holloway, LN, Pannell, KH, Whalen, MM. (2008) Effect of a series of triorganotins on ATP levels in human natural killer cells. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 25: 43-50.

Dudimah, FD, Gibson, C, Whalen, MM. (2007) Effect of Dibutyltin (DBT) on ATP levels in human natural killer cells. Environ. Toxicol., 22:117-123

Aluoch, AO, Odman-Ghazi, SO, Whalen, MM. (2007) Pattern of MAP kinases p44/42 and JNK activation by non-lethal doses of tributyltin in human natural killer cells. Arch. Toxicol., 81:271-277.

Dudimah, FD, Odman-Ghazi, SO, Hatcher, F, Whalen, MM. (2007) Effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on the ATP levels in human natural killer cells: Relationship to TBT- induced decreases in NK function. J. Appl. Toxicol., 27:86-94.

Gomez, FD, Apodaca, P, Holloway, LN, Pannell, KH, Whalen, MM. (2007) Effect of a series of triorganotins on the immune function of human natural killer cells. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 23:18-24

Beach, TM, Whalen, MM. (2006) Effects of organochlorine pesticides on interleukin secretion from lymphocytes. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 25: 651-659.

Aluoch, AO., Odman-Ghazi, SO, Whalen, MM. (2006) Alteration of an essential NK cell signaling pathway by low doses of tributyltin in human natural killer cells. Toxicology, 224: 229-237

Whalen, MM and Odman-Ghazi, SO (2006) Effects of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A inhibition on signaling enzymes in natural killer cells: comparison to tributyltin. Hum. Exp. Toxicology, 25: 333-340

Aluoch, AO and Whalen, MM. (2006) Effects of interleukins 2 and 12 on TBT-induced alterations of MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 in human natural killer cells. J. Applied Toxicology, 26: 132-138

Thomas, LD, Shah, H, Green, SA, Bankhurst, AD, and Whalen, MM. (2005) Effects of interleukin 2 and 12 on the levels of granzyme B and perforin and their mRNAs in tributyltin-exposed human natural killer cells. Arch. of Toxicol., 79: 711-720.

Catlin, R, Shah, H, Bankhurst, AD, and Whalen, MM (2005) Dibutyltin exposure decreases granzyme B and perforin in human natural killer cells. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 20: 395-403.

Taylor, TR, Tucker, T. and Whalen, MM. (2005) Persistent inhibition of human natural killer cell function by ziram and pentachlorophenol. Environmental Toxicology, 20: 418-424.

Aluoch, A. and Whalen, MM. (2005) Tributyltin-induced effects on MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 in human natural killer cells. Toxicology, 209: 263-277.

Odman-Ghazi, SO, Hatcher, F, and Whalen, MM. (2005) Persistent Immunotoxic Effects of Tributyltin Can be Reversed by Interleukin 2. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 19: 25-31.

Reed, A., Dzon, L., Loganathan, B.G., & Whalen, M.M. (2004) Immunomodulation of human natural killer cell cytotoxic function by organochlorine pesticides. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 23: 463-471.

Wilson, S, Dzon, L, Reed, A, Pruitt, M, and Whalen, MM. (2004) Effects of Extended, In Vitro, Exposures to Low Levels of Organotin and Carbamate Pesticides on Human Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function. Environmental Toxicology, 19: 554-563

Thomas, LD, Shah, H, Green, SA, Bankhurst, AD, and Whalen, MM. (2004) Tributyltin Exposure Causes Decreased Granzyme B and Perforin Levels in Human Natural Killer Cells. Toxicology, 200: 221-233

Chen, I-M, Whalen, MM, Bankhurst, A, Sever, CE, Doshi, R, Hardekopf, D, Montgomery, K, and Wilman CL. (2004) A New Human Natural Killer Leukemia Cell Line, IMC-1 Complex Chromosomal Rearrangement Defined by Spectral Karyotyping: Functional and Cytogenetic Characterization. Leukemia Research 28:275-284.

Jobe, KL, Odman-Ghazi, SO, Whalen, MM, and Vercruysse, KP. (2003) Interleukin-12 Release from Macrophages by Hyaluronan, Chondroitin Sulfate A and Chondroitin Sulfate C Oligosaccharides. Immuno. Lett. 89:99-109.

Bariagaber, AK and Whalen MM. (2003) Decreased Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Activities Inhibit the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells. Human Immunology 64:866-873.

Odman-Ghazi, SO, Hatcher, F, and Whalen, MM. (2003) Expression of Functionally Relevant Cell Surface Markers in Dibutyltin-exposed Human Natural Killer Cells. Chemico-Biological Interactions 146:1-18.

Whalen, MM, Loganathan, BG, Yamashita, N., and Saito, T. (2003) Immunomodulation of Human Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function by Triazine and Carbamate Pesticides. Chemico-Biological Interactions 145: 311-319.

Whalen, MM, Wilson, S, Gleghorn, C, Green, SA, and Loganathan BG. (2003) Brief Exposure to Triphenyltin Induces Irreversible Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells. Environmental Research 92: 213-230.

Whalen, MM, Williams, TB, Green, SA, and Loganathan, BG. (2002) Interleukins 2 and 12 Produce Recovery of Cytotoxic Function in Tributyltin-Exposed Human Natural Killer Cells. Environmental Research, 88: 199-209.

Whalen, MM, Walker, L, and Loganathan, BG. (2002) Interleukins2 and 12 Produce Significant Recovery of Cytotoxic Function in Dibutyltin-Exposed Human Natural Killer Cells. Environmental Research 88:103-115.

Whalen, MM, Ghazi, S, Loganathan, BG, and Hatcher, F. (2002) Expression of CD16, CD18, and CD56 in Tributyltin-Exposed Human Natural Killer Cells. Chemico-Biological Interactions 139: 159-176.

Whalen, MM, Green, SA, and Loganathan BG. (2002) Brief Butyltin Exposure Induces Irreversible Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells, In Vitro. Environmental Research 88:19-29.

Whalen, MM and Loganathan, BG. 2001. Butyltin Exposure Causes a Rapid Decrease in cyclic AMP Levels in Human Lymphocytes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 171:141-148.

Whalen, MM, Hariharan, S, and Loganathan, BG. 2000. Phenyltin Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells. Environmental Research 84: 162-169.

Whalen, MM and Crews, JD. 2000. Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity Contributes to the Lysis-Sensitive-Target Induced Elevation of cAMP in Human Natural Killer Cells. Biochemical Pharmacology 60: 499-506.

Whalen, MM, Doshi, RN and Bankhurst AD. 1999. Lysophosphatidylcholine and Arachidonic Acid are Required in the Cytotoxic Response of Human Natural Killer Cells. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 9: 297-309.

Whalen, MM, Loganathan, BG and Kannan, K. 1999. Immunotoxicity of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Butyltins on Human Natural Killer (NK) Cells in Vitro. Environmental Research, Environmental Research 81: 108-116.

Whalen, MM and Green, CB. 1998. Lysis-sensitive Targets Stimulate an Elevation of cAMP in Human Natural Killer Cells. Immunology 93: 415-420.

Whalen, MM. 1997. Inhibition of Human Natural Killer Cell Function, in vitro, by Glucose Concentrations Seen in Poorly Controlled Diabetes. Cellular Physiol. and Biochem. 7:53-60.

Scott, AA, Head, DR, Kopecky, KJ, Appelbaum, FR, Theil, KS, Grever, MR, Chen, I-M, Whittaker, MH, Griffith, BB, Licht, JD, Waxman, S, Whalen, MM, Bankhurst, AD, Richter, L.C, Grogan, TM, and Willman, CL. 1994. HLA-DR-, CD33+, CD56+, CD16- Myeloid/Natural Killer Cell Acute Leukemia: A Previously Unrecognized Form of Acute Leukemia Potentially Misdiagnosed as French-American-British Acute Myeloid Leukemia-M3. Blood 84: 244-255.

Whalen, MM, Doshi, RN, Homma, Y and Bankhurst, AD. 1993. "Phospholipase C Activation in the Cytotoxic Response of Human Natural Killer Cells Requires Protein-tyrosine Kinase Activity. Immunology 79: 542-547.

Whalen, MM, Doshi, RN and Bankhurst, AD. 1992. "Effects of Pertussis Toxin Treatment on Human Natural Killer Cell Function". Immunology 76: 402-407.

Whalen, MM and Bankhurst, AD. 1990. "Effects of -Adrenergic Receptor Activation, Cholera Toxin and Forskolin on Human Natural Killer Cell Function." Biochem. J. 272: 327-331.

Whalen, MM, Bitensky, MW and Takemoto, DJ. 1990. "The Effect of the Gamma Subunit of the Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase of Bovine and Frog (Rana catesbiana) on the Kinetic Parameters of the Enzyme " Biochem. J. 265: 655-658.

Whalen, MM and Bitensky, MW. 1989. "Comparison of the Phosphodiesterase Inhibitory Subunit Interactions of Frog and Bovine Rod Outer Segments". Biochem. J. 259: 13-19

Bitensky, MW, Whalen, MM and Torney, DC. 1988. "Life, Evolution, and the Pursuit of Single Photon Sensitivity." Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 53: 303-311.

Bitensky, MW, Whalen, MM, Torney, DC, Tatsumi, M and Yamazaki, A. 1987. "A Common Algorithm for the Transduction, Amplification and Cellular Response to Photons, Hormones, and Neurotransmitters." Prog. In Clin. and Biol. Res. 249: 3-20.

Bitensky, MW, Torney, D, Yamazaki, A, Whalen, MM and George, JS. 1987. "A Model of the Light-Dependent Regulation of Retinal Rod Phosphodiesterase, Guanylate Cyclase and the Cation Flux". Advances in Expt. Med. and Biol. 221: 107-121.

Whalen, MM and Wild, GC. 1987. "The Major Gangliosides of the Bovine Pineal Body". Lipids. 22, 17-21.

Whalen, MM, Wild, GC, Spall, WD & Sebring, RJ. 1986. "Separation of Underivatized Gangliosides by Ion Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography". Lipids. 21, 267-270.

Bitensky, MW, George, JS, Whalen, MM & Yamazaki, A. 1985. "Molecular Mechanisms of Visual Excitation: A Concatenation of Nonlinear Cellular Processes". J. Stat. Physics. 39, 513- 541.

Book Chapters:

Whalen, MM (2008) Impact of organotin compounds on the function of human natural killer cells. In: Tin Chemistry - Fundamentals, Applications, and Frontiers. Ed. A. Davies, K. Pannell, E. Tiekink and M. Gielen. Wiley

Whalen, MM. (2005) Chapter 6: Effects of selected environmental contaminants on human natural killer immune function. In: Trends in Immunology Research, Ed. BA Veskler pp.103-131 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Selected Presentations:

Whalen, MM., Martin, T. Triclosan causes persistent suppression of the immune function of human natural killer cells. Spring 2010 National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society, March 21-25, San Francisco, CA

Etherton, R, Whalen, MM. Nonylphenol interferes with the immune function of human natural killer cells. Spring 2010 National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society, March 21-25, San Francisco, CA

Abraha, AB, Whalen, MM. Role of p44/42 activation in TBT-induced losses of granzyme B and perforin in human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2010 Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, April 24-28, 2010.

Celada, L, Whalen, MM. Tributyltin causes activation of the MAP3K, c-raf, but not Ras in human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2010 Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, April 24-28, 2010.

Rana, K, Whalen, MM. Effect of TBT exposures on Protein kinase D activity of human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2010 Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, April 24-28, 2010.

Taylor, TR, Whalen, MM. Effects of Ziram on Human Natural Killer Cells MAP kinases and Cytolytic Proteins. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2010 Anaheim, CA, April 24-28, 2010.

Kibakaya, EC, Stephen, K, Whalen, MM. Teterabromobisphenol A interferes with the immune function of human natural killer cells. 238th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Washington DC, August 16-20, 2009.

Odman-Ghazi, S, Whalen, MM. Effects of exposures to dibutyltin on signaling pathways and cytosolic calcium ion levels in human natural killer cells. 238th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Washington DC, August 16-20, 2009.

Udoji, F, Whalen, MM. Analysis of effects of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on natural killer cells. 238th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Washington DC, August 16-20, 2009.

Whalen, MM. Effect of pentachlorophenol on MAP kinases in human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Abraha, AB, Whalen, MM. Inhibition of lytic function of human NK cells by Tributyltin: Role of Protein Kinase C. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Hinkson, NC, Whalen, MM. Hexabromocyclododecane decreases the lytic function and ATP levels of human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Taylor, TR, Whalen, MM. Effects of Ziram on Human Natural Killer Cells MAP kinases p38 and p44/42. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Celada, L, Whalen, MM. Tributyltin causes activation of c-raf in human natural killer cells. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Person, RJ, Whalen, MM. The effects of tributyltin on the transcription regulator AP-1. American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/Experimental Biology 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, April 18-22, 2009.

Whalen MM, Invited speaker, Workshop Session: Natural killer cells as targets of drugs, toxicants, and biologicals. 47th Society of Toxicology Meeting. “Environmental immunotoxicants on human NK cells. Seattle, WA, March 19, 2008.

Stephen, K, Whalen, MM. Inhibition of human natural killer cell lytic function by the brominated flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A. 235th Annual American Chemical Society National Meeting, New Orleans, LA , April 6-10, 2008.

Nnodu, U, Whalen, MM. Decreases in ATP levels of human natural killer cells induced by exposure to Pentachlorophenol. Experimental Biology 2008- American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA, April 5-9, 2008

Taylor, T, Whalen, MM. Effects of ziram on tumor cell binding capacity, cell-surface marker expression, and ATP levels of human natural killer cells. Experimental Biology 2008- American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA, April 5-9, 2008

Odman-Ghazi, SO, Isom, ET, Whalen, MM. Alteration of NK Cell Signaling Pathways by Exposure of Human Natural Killer Cells to Dibutyltin. Experimental Biology 2008- American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA, April 5-9, 2008

Dudimah, FD, Whalen, MM. Selective Activation of P-p44/42 by Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in Human Natural killer Cells Results in loss of Cytotoxic Function. Experimental Biology 2008- American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA, April 5-9, 2008

Abraha, AB, Whalen, MM. The role of MEK in TBT-induced activation of p44/42 in human natural killer cells. Experimental Biology 2008- American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. San Diego, CA, April 5-9, 2008

Nnodu, U, Whalen, MM. Decreases in ATP levels of human natural killer cells induced by exposure to Pentachlorophenol. Third Annual Posters at the Capitol Presentation, Nashville, TN, February 6, 2008.

Stephen, K, Whalen, MM. Inhibition of human natural killer cell lytic function by the brominated flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A. Third Annual Posters at the Capitol Presentation, Nashville, TN, February 6, 2008.

Dudimah, FD, Gibson, C, Whalen, MM. Effect of dibutyltin on ATP levels in human natural killer cells. Experimental Biology 2007- ASBMB, Washington, DC, April 30, 2007.

Ghazi, SO, Person, RJ, Whalen, MM. Effects of tributyltin on the phosphorylation state of protein tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C gamma in human natural killer cells. Experimental Biology 2007- ASBMB, Washington, DC, April 30, 2007

Taylor, TR, Whalen, MM. Effects of ziram on the tumor cell binding capacity of NK cells. Experimental Biology 2007- ASBMB, Washington, DC, April 30, 2007

Whalen, MM, Luebke, RW. Accumulation of dibutyltin in human natural killer cells. 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 25-29 2007.

Holloway, LN, Whalen, MM. Effect of a series of triorganotins on the ATP levels of human natural killer cells. Second Annual Posters at the Capitol Presentation, Nashville, TN, February 7, 2007.

Dudimah, FD, Whalen, MM. Effect of ATP levels on human natural killer cell cytotoxic function. Experimental Biology Meeting and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Meeting (ASBMB), San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2006.

Aluoch, AO, Whalen, MM. Tributyltin activates MAP kinase kinases in human natural killer cells. Experimental Biology Meeting and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Meeting (ASBMB), San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2006.

Whalen, MM, Gomez, FD, Holloway, LN, Apodaca, P, Pannell, KH. Effects of a series of triorganotins on the immune function of human natural killer cells. ACS 231st National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, March 26-30, 2006.

Whalen, MM. Effects of organotin compounds on human natural killer lymphocytes. Invited Seminar, presented to the risk assessments group of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), Cincinnati, OH January 12, 2006.

Aluoch, A, Whalen, MM. Interleukins 2 and 12 do not remediate altered MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 phosphorylation in tributyltin-exposed human natural killer cells. ACS 230th National Meeting, Washington DC, August 16, 2005.

Whalen, M.M. and Ghazi, S.O. "Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the expression of phospholipase C gamma 1 and p44/42 MAPK in human natural killer cells", 2005 FEBS-IUBMB Congress, July 6, 2005, Budapest, Hungary.

Aluoch, A, Whalen, MM. Tributyltin-induced effects on MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 in human natural killer cells. ACS 229th Spring National Meeting, San Diego, CA March 16th 2005.

Pruitt, M, Dzon, L, Reed, A, Whalen MM. Effects of in vitro exposure to low levels of organotin pesticides on human natural killer cell cytotoxic function. ACS 229th Spring National Meeting, San Diego, CA March 16th 2005.

Tucker, T, Whalen, MM. Brief exposure to pentachlorophenol causes progressive loss of cytotoxic function in human natural killer cells. ACS 229th Spring National Meeting, San Diego, CA March 16th 2005.

Thomas, LD, Shah, H, Green, SA, Bankhurst, AD and Whalen, MM. Tributyltin exposure causes decreased granzyme B and perforin levels in human natural killer cells. ACS National Meeting, Philadephia, PA August 2004.

Whalen, MM The interaction of organotins with human natural killer cells. Invited talk. 11th International Conference on the Coordination and Organometallic Chemistry of Germanium, Tin, and Lead (ICCOC-GTL-11) Santa Fe, NM, June 27-July 2, 2004.

Whalen, MM, Ghazi, SO, and Person, R. Tributyltin exposure alters the phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases in human natural killer cells. International Union for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB)/American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Meeting, Boston, MA June 12-16, 2004.

Whalen, MM. Effects of organotin contaminants on human natural killer lymphocyte function. Invited seminar University of Texas at El Paso, April 9, 2004

Reed, A., Dzon, L., Loganathan, BG, and Whalen, MM. Immunomodulation of Human Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function by Organochlorine Pesticides. 27th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA March 28-April 1, 2004

Tucker, T., Reed, A., Loganathan, BG, and Whalen, MM. Immunotoxic Effect of Pentachlorophenol on Human Natural Killer (NK) cells can be Diminished by NK-stimulatory Interleukins. 27th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA March 28-April 1, 2004

Whalen, MM. Cytotoxic function of natural killer lymphocytes as a biomarker for chemically-induced immune dysfunction. EPA/EPSCOR Special Conference on Biomarkers, Invited Speaker, Lexington, KY May 11-12, 2003.

Whalen, MM., Loganathan, B., Yamashita, N. Saito, T. Effect of agricultural pesticides on human immune cells: triazine and carbamate induced immunomodulation of natural killer cell function in vitro. National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, New Orleans, LA March 26, 2003.

Wilson, S. Whalen, M., Inhibition of the immune function of human natural killer cells following in vitro exposure to the agricultural fungicide, ziram. National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, New Orleans, LA March 26, 2003.

Whalen, MM., Regulation of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes: Effect of Butyltin Compounds. Invited Seminar, USDA Western Regional Nutrition Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, September 16, 2002

Whalen, MM., Regulation of the Tumor-killing Function of Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes: Effect of Butyltin Compounds. Invited Seminar, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Nagoya, JAPAN, June 27, 2002

Invited seminar: Whalen, MM. Regulation of the Tumor -killing Function of Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes: Effect of Butyltin Compounds. Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemistry, Nashville, TN, April 15, 2002.

Wilson, S, Loganathan, BG, and Whalen, MM. Brief Triphenyltin Exposure Causes Irreversible Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells. ACS National Meeting, Orlando, FL, April 7-11, 2002.

Ghazi, SO, Loganathan, BG, Hatcher, F, and Whalen, MM. Expression of CD16, CD18, and CD56 in Tributyltin-exposed Human Natural Killer Cells. ACS National Meeting, Orlando, FL, April 7-11, 2002.

Whalen, MM and Loganathan, BG. Brief Butyltin Exposure Induces Irreversible Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Function of Human Natural Killer Cells, in vitro. 222nd ACS National Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL, August 26-30, 2001.

Invited seminar: Whalen, M.M. "Health Effects of Radiation", Teaching Radiation, Energy and Technology (TREAT)Workshop, DOE/EPA Environmental Waste Management Education and Community Involvement Project, Savannah State University, July 23-26, 2001, Savannah, GA.

Grant Funding:

Grant funded May 1, 2007-April 30, 2011, as principal investigator on subproject #2,: $580,296.00 (direct costs). National Institutes of Health: MBRS-SCORE program Inhibition of Human Natural Killer Cells by Butyltins

Grant funded January 1, 2003- December 31, 2006, as principal investigator on subproject #8,: $565,918.00 (direct costs). National Institutes of Health: MBRS-SCORE program Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Response of Human NK cells by Butyltins

Grant funded 2000-2002, as principal investigator on subproject #7:  $319,742.00 (direct costs). National Institutes of Health: MBRS program. Inhibition of the Cytotoxic Response of Human NK cells by Butyltins

Grant funded 1998-2002, as principal investigator: $94,500.00 (direct and indirect costs) National Institutes of Health: Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA).Target Cell Induced Elevation of cAMP in Human NK Cells.






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